Skip to main content

Table 2 Factors associated with increased smoking in over-indebted individuals (reference category: decreased or unchanged tobacco consumption)

From: Factors associated with self-assessed increase in tobacco consumption among over-indebted individuals in Germany: a cross-sectional study

  Increase in smoking Model 1 c Model 2 cd
  Row percentages aOR 95% CI aOR 95% CI
Sex p=.018, df=1 a     
Male (ref.) 35.0 1   1  
Female 25.9 0.66 0.44-0.99 0.67 0.45-0.99
Age p=.393, df=3 a     
18-30 (ref.) 26.7 1   1  
31-40 35.0 1.03 0.57-1.84 1.00 0.56-1.80
41-50 31.7 0.80 0.45-1.44 0.78 0.43-1.42
51+ 27.2 0.63 0.30-1.30 0.62 0.30-1.29
Educational level p=.665, df=570 b     
≤ 9 years (ref.) 30.0 1   1  
> 9 years 31.8 1.08 0.73-1.62 1.12 0.75-1.68
Income p=.119, df=570 b     
≤ 1500 € (ref.) 29.0 1   1  
> 1500 € 36.2 1.34 0.84-2.12 1.38 0.86-2.20
Marital status p=.251, df=2 a     
Married (ref.) 32.1 1   1  
Unmarried 26.4 0.73 0.42-1.26 0.78 0.45-1.36
Divorced/Separated/Widowed 33.8 1.10 0.68-1.77 1.14 0.70-1.86
Duration of over-indebtedness p=.010, df=551 b     
≤ 5 years (ref.) 26.4 1   1  
6 to 10 years 29.0 1.05 0.65-1.68 1.04 0.64-1.68
> 10 years 39.2 1.76 1.00-2.73 1.66 1.00-2.76
Social support p<.001, df=563 b     
High (ref.) 22.5 1   1  
Less than high 26.6 1.21 0.71-2.06 1.10 0.64-1.89
More than low 36.7 1.88 1.07-3.30 1.51 0.83-2.74
Low 45.6 2.78 1.45-5.26 1.99 0.99-3.98
Health awareness p<.001, df=566 b     
High (ref.) 22.2 1   1  
Medium 33.2 1.59 1.03-2.47 1.66 1.07-2.58
Low 42.0 1.98 1.15-3.43 2.15 1.23-3.76
Changes in social embeddedness since onset of over-indebtedness p<.001, df=559 b     
No withdrawal (ref.) 24.1    1  
Friends or relatives withdrawn 35.5    1.45 0.91-2.31
Friends and relatives withdrawn 41.7    1.82 1.06-3.14
  1. Notes: OI-survey; a chi2 test; b t-test (Spearman correlation); c multivariate binary logistic regression (n=572); d changes in social embeddedness following onset of over-indebtedness was additionally included in the analysis.