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Table 3 Knowledge of overdose

From: Attitudes and knowledge about naloxone and overdose prevention among detained drug users in Ningbo, China

  Total Male Female
Signs of heroin overdose    
   Breathing ↑ 15.8% 15.4% 16.7%
   Breathing ↓ 26.1% 26.5% 25.0%
   Pulse ↑ 20.9% 20.4% 22.2%
   Pulse ↓ 25.2% 24.1% 27.8%
   Pupils ↑ 23.5% 17.9% 36.1%
Pupils ↓ 10.7% 11.7% 8.3%
   Body temperature ↑ 8.1% 6.2% 12.5%
   Body temperature ↓ 6.8% 4.9% 11.1%
   Loss of consciousness 51.3% 43.8% 68.1%
   Excited 7.3% 7.4% 6.9%
   Don't know 9.4% 11.1% 5.5%
Responding to a victim of overdose    
   Waking him/her up 22.6% 13.1% 44.2%**
   Pinching an acupuncture point 21.7% 25.1% 46.8%**
   Cold water 7.7% 5.7% 10.4%
   Injecting salt water 56.0% 47.4% 75.3%**
   Calling 120 (emergency) 34.1% 34.9% 32.5%
   Drinking water 3.2% 2.3% 5.2%*
Naloxone 6.0% 7.4% 2.6%
Mouth to mouth resuscitation 12.7% 9.7% 32.5%*
Waking up on his/her own 2.0% 2.3% 1.3%
Don't know 3.6% 4.0% 2.6%
Injecting salt water is effective to prevent overdose    
   Yes 63.4% 60.7% 69.7%
   No 8.8% 10.4% 5.3%
   Don't know 27.8% 28.9% 25.0%
Naloxone is effective to prevent overdose    
Yes 28.2% 32.2% 19.5%*
No 8.1% 7.6% 9.1%
Don't know 63.7% 60.2% 71.4%
Having learned cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques    
Yes 17.6% 19.6% 12.9%
No 82.4% 80.4% 87.1%
Causes of overdose    
   After drinking heavily 21.9% 19.0% 27.8%
   Poly-drug use 14.6% 12.5% 19.0%
   Abstinence 26.7% 17.3% 46.8%**
   Good quality of heroin 76.1% 73.8% 81.0%
   Unknown substance in heroin 18.2% 14.3% 26.6%*
   Don't know 4.5% 5.4% 2.5%
How did participants obtain information about heroin overdose?    
   Friends 63.1% 56.1% 78.2%**
   Brochures 23.7% 22.8% 25.6%
   Media 24.5% 28.1% 16.7%
   Training programs 3.6% 5.3% 0
   Don't know 4.8% 5.8% 2.6%*
  1. *p < 0.05 a significant difference between male and female participants
  2. **p < 0.01 a significant difference between male and female participants