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Table 5 Maternal and newborn outcomes in an “as treated” analysis among mothers exposed to opiates

From: Auricular acupuncture for chemically dependent pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial of the NADA protocol

  Acupuncture compliant n= 13 Acupuncture non-compliant n=27 Control n=32 P-value
Maternal methadone dose at delivery (mg), mean (sd) a 75.2 (63.7) 67.0 (45.5) 64.5 (48.3) 0.86
Change in methadone dose from admission- until delivery, (mg), mean (sd)a −15.9 (37.7) −8.9 (34.8) −11.6 (25.7) 0.85
Days of newborn treatment with morphine, mean (sd) a 1.9 (4.5) 4.0 (7.8) 3.5 (7.7) 0.71
Apgar Score < 7 @ 1 minute, n (%) b 2 (15.4) 7 (26.9) 6 (20.7) 0.80
Apgar Score < 7 @ 5 minute, n (%) b 1 (7.7) 0 2(6.9) 0.41
Missing 0 1 3  
Admitted to NICU, n (%) b 4 (30.8) 12 (44.4) 9 (28.1) 0.44
Mother lost custody, n (%) b 5 (38.5) 7 (26.9) 12 (40/0) 0.54
Missing 0 1 2  
Symptoms of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (days), mean (sd) a     
 High pitched cry c 2.1 (3.5) 4.0 (5.4) 3.4 (6.1) 0.83
 Crying inconsolably 0.3 (1.0) 0.3 (1.0) 0.4 (1.1) 0.52
 Tremors/jitteriness when disturbed 5.7 (2.5) 9.5 (5.9) 8.7 (7.2) 0.28
 Tremors/jitteriness when undisturbed 0.4 (1.0) 2.3 (3.4) 1.5 (2.8) 0.24
 Abnormal muscle tone 3.1 (4.0) 5.7 (6.9) 5.7 (8.7) 0.83
 Disorganized sucking/swallowing 1.8 (4.4) 2.3 (4.6) 2.6 (5.8) 0.89
 Weak or absent suck 1.3 (2.9) 2.1 (4.1) 2.4 (5.3) 0.98
 Vomiting 0.1 (0.3) 0.3 (1.0) 0.3 (1.0) 0.86
 Loose, watery, or explosive stools 0.6 (1.2) 1.9 (4.0) 1.8 (3.0) 0.21
  1. a ANOVA, Methadone dose at delivery, Change in methadone df 2, 48; Days of newborn treatment with morphine df 2, 64.
  2. b Fisher’s exact test.
  3. c Kruskall-Wallis test, 2df.