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Table 4 Maternal and newborn outcomes

From: Auricular acupuncture for chemically dependent pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial of the NADA protocol

  Acupuncture n= 48 Control n= 38 P-value
Breast Feeding, n (%) a    
 Exclusive 12 (25.5) 7 (20.0)  
 Combined 17 (36.2) 15 (42.9)  
 Formula 18 (38.3) 13 (37.1) 0.78
 Missing 1 3  
Mode of Delivery, n (%)a    
 Spontaneous Vaginal 30 (62.5) 25 (65.9)  
 Assisted Vaginal 4 (8.3) 2 (5.3)  
 Cesarean 14 (29.2) 11 (28.9) 0.85
Gestational Age at Delivery (weeks), mean (sd) b 38.0 (2.8) 38.0 (2.6) 0.37
Days in Hospital, mean (sd) b 28.7 (23.9) 29.3 (25.6) 0.39
Apgar Score < 7 @ 1 minute, n (%) c 10 (20.4) 8 (22.2) 1.00
Apgar Score < 7 @ 5 minute, n (%)c 1 (2.0) 3 (8.3) 0.31
Missing 1 3  
Birth Weight, mean (sd)b 2985.7 (594.7) 3074.9 (557.1) 0.26
Birth Length, mean (sd) b 49.12 (5.1) 48.8 (4.3) 0.47
Head Circumference, mean (sd) b 33.3 (1.6) 33.9 (1.90) 0.22
Days to regain birth weight, mean (sd)b 11.2 (4.7) 10.6 (3.9) 0.57
Days of treatment with morphine, mean (sd) b 2.7 (6.3) 2.8 (7.0) 0.97
Admitted to NICU, n (%)c 19 (38.0) 11 (28.2) 0.37
Mother lost custody, n (%)c 18 (36.7) 16 (44.4) 0.51
Symptoms of Neonatal Abstinence    
 Syndrome (days), mean (sd) b    
 High pitched cry 3.5 (5.0) 3.4 (6.1) 0.46
 Crying inconsolably 0.3 (0.9) 0.4 (1.1) 0.94
 Tremors/jitteriness when disturbed 8.6 (5.5) 8.7 (7.2) 0.58
 Tremors/jitteriness when undisturbed 1.8 (3.0) 1.5 (2.8) 0.68
 Abnormal muscle tone 5.0 (6.3) 5.7 (8.7) 0.61
 Disorganized sucking/swallowing 2.2 (4.5) 2.6 (5.8) 0.57
 Weak or absent suck 1.9 (3.8) 2.4 (5.3) 0.75
 Vomiting 0.2 (1.0) 0.3 (1.0) 0.69
 Loose, watery, or explosive stools 1.5 (3.5) 1.8 (3.0) 0.29
  1. a Chi square test , 2df.
  2. b Mann–Whitney U test.
  3. c Fisher’s Exact Test.