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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for the relationships between ACEs and adult current smoking, by sex

From: The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults

ACE Females AdjustedaOR (95% CI) Males AdjustedaOR (95% CI)
Abuse   
Emotional   
Yes 1.4 (1.1-2.0)* 1.2 (0.8-1.8)
No Referent Referent
Physical   
Yes 1.4 (1.1-1.8)* 1.3 (1.0-1.7)
No Referent Referent
Sexual   
Yes 1.2 (0.9-1.6) 0.9 (0.7-1.3)
No referent Referent
Neglect   
Emotional   
Yes 1.2 (0.9-1.7) 1.2 (0.9-1.8)
No Referent Referent
Physical   
Yes 1.5 (1.1-2.2)* 1.1 (0.7-1.6)
No Referent Referent
Household dysfunction   
Witnessing domestic violence   
Yes 1.4 (1.0-1.9) 0.9 (0.6-1.3)
No Referent Referent
Parental separation or divorce   
Yes 1.4 (1.1-1.9)* 1.1 (0.8-1.5)
No Referent Referent
Mental illness in the household   
Yes 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 1.1 (0.8-1.5)
No Referent Referent
Household substance abuse   
Yes 1.0 (0.8-1.3) 1.1 (0.8-1.4)
No referent Referent
Incarcerated household member   
Yes 2.3 (1.6-3.2)* 1.1 (0.7-1.8)
No Referent Referent
ACE score   
0 Referent Referent
1 0.7 (0.5-1.0) 1.2 (0.8-1.7)
2 1.3 (0.9-1.8) 1.3 (0.9-2.0)
3 1.3 (0.9-2.0) 0.9 (0.6-1.5)
4+ 1.4 (1.0-2.0) 1.2 (0.8-1.7)
  1. a Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Multivariable logistic regression models included age group, race, education, parental smoking during childhood, and alcohol use in past month.
  2. *p < 0.05.