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Table 3 Parameter estimates: smoking and drinking response to cigarette price by age group, BRFSS, 2001-6 (a)

From: Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

Independent variables Current Smoking β (SE) Current Drinking β (SE) Binge Drinking(c)β (SE) Heavy Drinking β (SE)
N=1,323,758(b)
State cigarette pack price ($) 0.014* (0.007) 0.037*** (0.009) -0.019** (0.007) 0.001 (0.004)
Age (reference = 65 and older
18-20 0.128*** (0.029) 0.215*** (0.034) 0.060 (0.032) 0.027 (0.019)
21-29 0.195*** (0.014) 0.264*** (0.016) 0.104*** (0.014) 0.027** (0.009)
30-64 0.211*** (0.008) 0.140*** (0.011) 0.054*** (0.006) 0.023*** (0.004)
Cigarette price x aged 18-20 -0.032* (0.014) -0.077*** (0.017) 0.049** (0.016) 0.005 (0.010)
Cigarette price x aged 21-29 -0.006 (0.007) -0.045*** (0.008) 0.060*** (0.007) 0.011* (0.004)
Cigarette price x aged 30-64 -0.025*** (0.004) -0.029*** (0.005) 0.019*** (0.003) -0.002 (0.002)
Year (reference = 2006) (d)
2001 0.025*** (0.003) 0.022***(0.004) 0.002 (0.003) 0.002 (0.002)
2002 0.022***(0.003) 0.030***(0.004) 0.013***(0.003) 0.007***(0.002)
2003 0.021***(0.003) 0.043***(0.003) 0.016***(0.002) 0.007*** (0.002)
2004 0.008**(0.003) 0.028***(0.003) 0.005*(0.002) 0.002 (0.002)
2005 0.006**(0.002) 0.015***(0.003) 0 0.002 (0.001)
  1. Notes: Models included covariates for gender, poverty status, race/ethnicity, co-habitating partner status, employment status, educational level, beer price (six-pack), magnitude of state smokefree laws, state poverty rate.
  2. β = beta for parameter estimate; SE = Standard Error; *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001, using t-tests, df =1,320,358 for current smoking, current drinking, and heavy drinking, df =1,047,879 for binge drinking.
  3. (a) Weighted data are presented to reflect the complex sampling design of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).
  4. (b) N = 1,323,758. This is sample used for all analyses, except as noted.
  5. (c) N = 1,050,573. Dropped all observations from 2006 in binge drinking analyses to reflect change in definition of binge drinking for women in that year.
  6. (d) Reference year is 2006 for all analyses except binge drinking analysis, when reference year is 2005.