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Table 2 Univariate associations of sociodemographics, cultural variables, and depressive symptoms with smoking behavior1

From: Depressive symptoms and smoking among young Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

  Smokers (%)
(n = 81)
Non- smokers (%)
(n = 283)
Wald P-Value OR (95% CI)
Depressive symptoms      1.00
No 57.1 70.5 4.86 .03 1.79 (1.0 - 3.02)*
Yes 42.9 29.5    
Age, mean (SD) 19.78 (2.47) 18.53 (2.78) 12.40 .00 1.17 (1.07 - 1.28)***
Gender      
Female 34.6 53.4 8.68 .00 1.00
Male 65.4 46.6    2.18 (1.29 - 3.68)**
Religion      
High 53.1 73.4 11.59 .00 1.00
Low 46.9 26.6    2.58 (1.53 - 4.37)***
Education level      
Low 32.5 37.2 0.59 .44 1.00
Middle-High 67.5 62.8    0.81 (0.47 - 1.39)
Labor market position    5.06 .02  
Student 53.2 75.9    1.00
Employed 46.8 24.1    2.77 (1.64 - 4.61)*
Marital Status      
Married 16.0 13.8 0.26 .61 1.00
Unmarried 84.0 86.2    0.84 (0.42 - 1.66)
Generation      
First 29.6 29.3 0.00 .96 1.00
Second 70.4 70.7    0.99 (0.57 - 1.69)
Ethnicity      
Moroccan 21.0 50.2 20.05 .00 1.00
Turkish 79.0 49.8    3.79 (2.10 - 6.85)***
Cultural orientation      
Low 61.2 54.7 1.09 .30 1.00
High 38.8 45.3    0.74 (0. 44 - 1.24)
Social contacts      
Low 74.7 72.7 0.13 0.72 1.00
High 25.3 27.7    0.90 (0.51 - 1.60)
  1. 1All analyses were adjusted for age.
  2. 2Significance was tested using Wald chi-square tests with df = 1.
  3. 3p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001.