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Table 4 Nutritional supplementation (NS) data (T - tennis; TT - table tennis; B - badminton; frequencies - f, percentage - %)

From: Is there a danger for myopia in anti-doping education? Comparative analysis of substance use and misuse in Olympic racket sports calls for a broader approach

  MALES FEMALES
  T TT B T TT B
  f(%) f(%) f(%) f(%) f(%) f(%)
Isotonics and vitamins       
No 8(38.1) 37(74.0) 32(62.7) 3(50.0) 18(64.3) 16(51.6)
Yes 13(61.9) 13(26.0) 19(37.3) 3(50.0) 10(35.7) 15(48.4)
Proteins       
No 12(57.1) 45(90.0) 37(72.5) 6(100.0) 26(92.9) 28(90.3)
Yes 9(42.9) 5(10.0) 14(27.5) 0(0.0) 2(7.1) 3(9.7)
Carbohydrates       
No 11(52.4) 46(92.0) 45(88.2) 6(100.0) 28(100.0) 31(100.0)
Yes 10(47.6) 4(8.0) 6(11.8)    
Recovery supplements       
No 21(100.0) 49(98.0) 45(88.2) 6(100.0) 28(100.0) 31(100.0)
Yes 0(0.0) 1(2.0) 6(11.8)    
NS in general       
Yes 15(71.4) 14(28.0) 27(52.9) 3(50.0) 11(39.3) 16(51.6)
No 6(28.6) 36(72.0) 24(47.1) 3(50.0) 17(60.7) 15(48.4)
Advised by coach to use NS       
No 13(46.7) 49(92.9) 40(59.3) 5(66.7) 28(100.0) 29(87.5)
Yes 8(53.3) 1(7.1) 11(40.7) 1(33.3) 0(0.0) 2(12.5)
Advised by physician to use NS       
No 21(100.0) 50(100.0) 46(81.5) 4(33.3) 26(81.8) 29(87.5)
Yes 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 5(18.5) 2(66.7) 2(18.2) 2(12.5)
Advised by friend to use NS       
No 17(73.3) 47(78.6) 43(70.4) 6(100.0) 23(54.5) 27(75.0)
Yes 4(26.7) 3(21.4) 8(29.6) 0(0.0) 5(45.5) 4(25.0)
Self decided to use the NS       
No 16(66.7) 38(14.3) 40(59.3) 6(100.0) 23(54.5) 22(43.70)
Yes 5(33.3) 12(85.7) 11(40.7) 0(0.0) 5(45.5) 9(56.3)
  1. T - tennis; TT - table tennis; B - badminton; frequencies - f, percentage - %