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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analyses: factors associated with dependency syndrome

From: Areca nut chewing and dependency syndrome: Is the dependence comparable to smoking? a cross sectional study

  Univariate analysis   Multivariate analysis*  
  Odds ratio (95% CI)    Odds ratio (95% CI)   
   p value Wald chi 2   p value Wald chi 2
Age at screening       
Age 16-20 1    1   
Age 21-25 1.65 (1.11-2.48) 0.014 2.45 1.76 (1.06-2.91) 0.03 2.21
Age 26-30 2.01 (1.25-3.23) 0.004 2.89 0.87 (0.45-1.69) 0.68 -0.41
Age 31-35 6.52 (3.43-12.39) < 0.001 5.72 1.16 (0.37-3.64) 0.79 0.26
Years of education       
< 10 years 1    1   
10-12 years 1.11(0.68-1.81) 0.68 0.41 0.91 (0.52-1.60) 0.75 -0.32
> 12 years 1.07 (0.63-1.81) 0.81 0.24 0.91 (0.50-1.67) 0.76 -0.30
Family history of substance use       
Absent 1    1   
Present 2.29 (1.57-3.37) < 0.001 4.26 2.36 (1.39-4.01) 0.002 3.16
Duration of use (years)       
< 6 years 1    1   
6-10 years 2.87 (1.90-4.33) < 0.001 5.02 3.62 (2.16-6.07) < 0.001 4.89
> 10 years 5.88 (2.91-11.91) < 0.001 4.92 7.18 (2.08-24.82) 0.002 3.12
Group       
Areca only 1    1   
Areca with tobacco additives 1.74 (1.18-2.56) 0.005 2.82 2.17 (1.39-3.40) 0.001 3.4
Smokers only 4.31 (2.76-6.73) < 0.001 6.44 7.87 (4.70-13.15) < 0.001 7.87
  1. * Multivariate model included all the co-variates listed in the table