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Table 2 Dependency symptoms among users of areca nuts, areca nut with tobacco additives and cigarette smokers

From: Areca nut chewing and dependency syndrome: Is the dependence comparable to smoking? a cross sectional study

  Type of substance use  
Symptom Areca nut only Areca + Tobacco Smokers only P-value
  N = 314 N = 242 N = 295  
  n (%) n (%) n (%)  
Tolerance 101 (32.2) 90 (37.2) 116 (39.3) < 0.001
Withdrawal 87 (27.7) 158 (65.3) 204 (69.2) < 0.001
Excess use 239 (76.1) 102 (42.2) 119 (40.3) < 0.001
Attempt to cut down 93 (29.6) 152 (62.8) 218 (73.9) < 0.001
Considerable time spent before reuse or recovery 88 (28.0) 100 (41.3) 135 (45.8) < 0.001
Activity given up 175 (55.7) 95 (39.3) 65 (22.0) < 0.001
Continue use despite known health hazards 195 (62.1) 138 (57.0) 256 (86.8) < 0.001
  1. p values calculated using the chi2 test between the presence or absence of symptom and group of substances use