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Table 4 Multinomial logistic multilevel model predicting type of opioid use: Individual enrolee and OTP-average age

From: Age differences in heroin and prescription opioid abuse among enrolees into opioid treatment programs

  PO & Heroin vs. Heroin Only PO Only vs. Heroin Only
  Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval   Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval  
  Lower Estimate Upper p Lower Estimate Upper p
OTP Average Age 0.916 0.926 0.936 <.001 0.776 0.787 0.798 <.001
Individual Age Within OTP 0.979 0.982 0.985 <.001 0.984 0.988 0.991 <.001
Interview Year         
2006 vs. 2005 0.878 0.970 1.071 0.548 1.038 1.161 1.299 0.009
2007 vs. 2005 1.012 1.130 1.262 0.030 1.152 1.302 1.471 <.001
2008 vs. 2005 1.937 2.157 2.402 <.001 1.879 2.121 2.395 <.001
2009 vs. 2005 2.000 2.227 2.479 <.001 2.031 2.288 2.578 <.001
Beale Urbanicity         
Medium vs. High Density 2.280 2.536 2.821 <.001 3.439 3.837 4.281 <.001
Low vs. High Density 4.480 6.021 8.094 <.001 7.443 9.924 13.230 <.001
U.S. Region         
Southeast vs. Northeast 1.439 1.649 1.890 <.001 10.022 11.476 13.139 <.001
Midwest vs. Northeast 1.432 1.857 2.407 <.001 3.937 5.102 6.612 <.001
West vs. Northeast 0.794 0.865 0.942 0.001 1.931 2.141 2.374 <.001
  1. Note: All associations were tested for significance using z-tests, in which the coefficient was divided by its standard error and compared with the normal distribution. Coefficients and confidence limits were exponentiated to odds ratios for presentation here. Sample sizes for this analysis were 29107 individual enrolees nested within one of 85 OTPs.