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Table 5 Odds ratios from logistic regression analyses (binary and multinomial) examining associations of family functioning with children's self-reported alcohol consumption (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001)

From: An exploratory study of the relationship between parental attitudes and behaviour and young people's consumption of alcohol

  Ever tried alcohol (n = 4977) Frequent drinker (n = 3651) Ever been seriously drunk (n = 3594) Drunk alcohol in past 4 weeks (n = 3697) Binge drunk in last 4 weeks (n = 3687)
     1-2 times More than twice 1-2 times More than twice
Univariable associations
Family closeness 0.51***
(0.46 to 0.56)
0.49***
(0.44 to 0.54)
0.54***
(0.49 to 0.59)
0.73***
(0.65 to 0.82)
0.48***
(0.43 to 0.54)
0.60***
(0.54 to 0.67)
0.45***
(0.40 to 0.51)
Parental monitoring 0.16***
(0.14 0.19)
0.19***
(0.16 to 0.23)
0.22***
(0.19 to 0.25)
0.32***
(0.27 to 0.38)
0.11***
(0.09 to 0.13)
0.24***
(0.20 to 0.28)
0.11***
(0.09 to 0.13)
Family conflict 1.63***
(1.50 to 1.78)
1.42***
(1.29 to 1.57)
1.38***
(1.27 to 1.50)
1.28**
(1.16 to 1.40)
1.51***
(1.36 to 1.67)
1.24***
(1.12 to 1.36)
1.40***
(1.25 to 1.57)
Family violence 1.46***
(1.26 to 1.69)
1.70***
(1.49 to 1.94)
1.42***
(1.26 to 1.60)
1.20*
(1.03 to 1.40)
1.57***
(1.37 to 1.85)
1.34***
(1.16 to 1.55)
1.77***
(1.53 to 2.06)
Parental attitudes to substance misuse 4.68***
(3.35 to 6.54)
4.47***
(3.70 to 5.41)
4.12***
(3.34 to 5.07)
2.83***
(2.06 to 3.90)
8.30***
(6.06 to 11.35)
5.92***
(4.58 to 7.64)
10.85***
(8.32 to 14.14)
Parental attitudes - alcohol petty crime 4.50***
(3.77 to 5.38)
3.60***
(3.08 to 4.20)
2.98***
(2.60 to 3.42)
2.21***
(1.86 to 2.62)
4.80***
(4.00 to 5.76)
3.01***
(2.56 to 3.53)
5.41***
(4.50 to 6.50)
Brothers or sisters drank frequently 5.59***
(4.56 to 6.85)
2.94***
(2.48 to 3.47)
2.64***
(2.30 to 3.04)
1.89***
(1.60 to 2.24)
3.78***
(3.16 to 4.51)
2.76***
(2.35 to 3.24)
3.31***
(2.74 to 3.01)
Family member substance problem 3.15***
(2.48 to 4.00)
2.43***
(2.01 to 2.93)
2.61***
(2.21 to 3.10)
1.32*
(1.07 to 1.62)
2.21***
(1.79 to 2.73)
1.81***
(1.51 to 2.24)
2.77***
(2.23 to 3.43)
Multivariate analysis - Protective factors
Family closeness 0.97
(0.86 to 1.09)
0.86*
(0.75 to 0.98)
0.91
(0.81 to 1.03)
1.08
(0.95 to 1.22)
1.06
(0.91 to 1.22)
0.98
(0.86 to 1.12)
0.97
(0.82 to 1.14)
Parental monitoring 0.23***
(0.19 to 0.28)
0.27***
(0.22 to 0.33)
0.31***
(0.26 to 0.37)
0.35***
(0.28 to 0.43)
0.16***
(0.12 to 0.20)
0.29***
(0.24 to 0.36)
0.15***
(0.12 to 0.19)
Multivariate analysis - Parental monitoring and risk factors
Parental monitoring 0.38***
(0.31 to 0.46)
0.41***
(0.33 to 0.52)
0.41***
(0.34 to 0.50)
0.45***
(0.36 to 0.55)
0.25***
(0.20 to 0.32)
0.43***
(0.35 to 0.53)
0.26***
(0.20 to 0.34)
Family conflict 1.27***
(1.14 to 1.41)
0.92
(0.79 to 1.07)
1.04
(0.94 to 1.16)
1.14*
(1.02 to 1.27)
1.07
(0.94 to 1.22)
0.93
(0.82 to 1.05)
0.84*
(0.72 to 0.98)
Family violence .90
(0.76 to 1.07)
1.12
(0.94 to 1.31)
0.97
(0.82 to 1.13)
0.93
(0.78 to 1.11)
0.94
(0.77 to 1.15)
1.02
(0.83 to 1.22)
1.14
(0.92 to 1.40)
Parental attitudes to substance misuse 0.79
(0.58 to 1.08)
1.94***
(1.56 to 2.42)
1.52***
(1.20 to 1.91)
1.20
(0.86 to 1.68)
2.15***
(1.54 to 3.01)
2.26***
(1.70 to 2.99)
3.05***
(2.27 to 4.11)
Parental attitudes - alcohol petty crime 1.67***
(1.34 to 2.09)
1.30*
(1.05 to 1.61)
1.27**
(1.05 to 1.54)
1.27**
(1.03 to 1.57)
1.30**
(1.02 to 1.65)
1.44**
(1.17 to 1.77)
1.54**
(1.20 to 1.99)
Brothers or sisters drank frequently 3.14***
(2.53 to 3.91)
1.87**
(1.55 to 2.26)
1.69***
(1.44 to 1.98)
1.49***
(1.24 to 1.78)
2.32**
(1.84 to 2.76)
1.97***
(1.65 to 2.36)
2.02***
(1.61 to 2.53)
Family member with substance problem 1.72***
(1.32 to 2.24)
1.33***
(1.06 to 1.67)
1.73***
(1.43 to 2.14)
0.97
(0.77 to 1.22)
1.06
(0.82 to 1.37)
1.25
(0.99 to 1.56)
1.43**
(1.10 to 1.88)
Nagelkerke R2 0.29 0.26 0.31 0.26   0.32