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Table 2 Logistic regression model for AAS use by selected social variables adjusted for gender and age (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals)

From: Sport, and use of anabolic androgenic steroids among Icelandic high school students: a critical test of three perspectives

  Have used AAS
  OR (95% CI)
Sport participation in sport club   
Variable 1 (Less than 1x; 2x or more) 1.125 .685-2.516
Variable 2 (Almost never; 1-3x; 4x or more) 1.103 .840-1.449
Variable 3 (Less than 1x; 4x or more) 1.331 .783-2.262
Fitness sport participation   
Variable 1 (Less than 1x; 2x or more) 1.444 .828-2.516
Variable 2 (Almost never; 1-3x; 4x or more) 1.468** 1.096-1.967
Variable 3 (Less than 1x; 4x or more) 2.665*** 1.583-.4.486
Odds ratio for steroid use among those who practice sports 4x a week or more in sport clubs and outside sport clubs. 2.27***  
Tobacco and Alcohol Use 3.154** 1.490-6.677
Daily smoke 1.754* 1.055-2.916
Other tobacco use in the past 30 days 1.612** 1.207-2.154
Drunk in the past 30 days 1.765* 1.024-3.043
Illegal substance use 4.891*** 3.007-7.953
Used hashish 3.977*** 2.463-6.422
Used amphetamines 7.487*** 4.661-12.027
Other substances 7.815*** 4.868-12.546
Family   
Parents education .900 .660-1.228
Living with parents .964 .503-1.846
Parents support .781 .602-.1.014
Parents rule setting .863 .484-1.540
School   
Grades .559** .369-.846
School Anomie 1.448** 1.124-1.867
School Integration .732* .559-.691
Other   
Anomie 1.167 .635-2.145
Institutional trust .960 .540-1.705
Religion .939 .825-1.068
  1. *Significant at p < 0.05 level
  2. ** Significant at p < 0.01 level
  3. *** Significant at p < 0.001 level
  4. p-values were from Wald t-tests, df = 1