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Table 4 Odds ratios (OR) for those being questioned and having received advice/help concerning their alcohol habits, gender, and age using ordered logistic regressions modeling the five stages of change1 regarding the patients' alcohol habits (n = 1 693).

From: Being questioned and receiving advice about alcohol and smoking in health care: Associations with patients' characteristics, health behavior, and reported stage of change

  Bivariate Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  OR OR OR OR
No questions 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Questioned 2.03*** 1.47* 1.45* 1.00
No advice 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Advised 8.45*** 6.43*** 6.74*** 1.04
Age .956*** - .956*** .953***
Gender     
Female 1.0 - 1.0 1.0
Male 1.08 - 1.04 1.08
Interactions     
Questioned*female - - - 1.92*
Advised*male - - - 5.01*
Advised*age - - - 1.038*
  1. * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 *** p < 0.001 The significance level is given for each category contrasted against the average of the variable's all categories using Wald chi-square tests in logistic regression models.
  2. 1 People who had reduced their alcohol consumption more than 12 months ago were excluded. Similarly, persons who drank less than a glass of alcohol during the last twelve months were not addressed by the stage of change item and are therefore also excluded.