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Table 3 Odds ratio for people in different stages of change1 to have received questions and advice/help to reduce their alcohol consumption or to cease smoking using logistic regression models among patients who had visited health care during past 12 months.

From: Being questioned and receiving advice about alcohol and smoking in health care: Associations with patients' characteristics, health behavior, and reported stage of change

  Does not intend to reduce/cease within 6 months Intends to reduce/cease within 6 months Intends to reduce/cease within a month Reduced/ ceased less than 6 months ago Reduced/ ceased 6-12 months Ago Reduced/ ceased more than 12 months ago
  OR OR OR OR OR OR n total
Reduced alcohol consumption
Questions 1.04 1.44 1.61 2.35*** 2.13** 1.36*  
n 1433 79 52 97 86 501 2248
Advice/help 1.05 8.84*** 18.2*** 11.6*** 12.0*** 2.96**  
Advice/help II 1.06 1.06 1.06 6.29*** 6.49*** 1.60  
n 1417 74 52 96 84 487 2210
Smoking cessation
Questions 1.02 1.62* 0.58 1.23 0.64 0.49***  
n 292 154 49 55 43 723 1316
Advice/help 1.03 1.63* 0.52 0.76 0.54 0.05***  
n 287 155 50 56 44 702 1294
  1. * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 *** p < 0.001 The significance level is given for each category contrasted against the average of the variable's all categories using Wald chi-square tests in logistic regression models.
  2. 1 People who had never smoked were not addressed by the stage of change item and excluded from the modeling. Similarly, persons who drank less than a glass of alcohol during the last twelve months were not addressed by this stage of change item and therefore excluded from the alcohol model.
  3. 2The OR 1.0 in the reference group corresponds to a likelihood of 45.6 percent of having received questions.
  4. 3 The OR 1.0 in the reference group corresponds to a likelihood of 32.1 percent of having received advice/help.
  5. 4 The OR 1.0 in the reference group corresponds to a likelihood of 20.1 percent of having received questions.
  6. 5 The OR 1.0 in the reference group corresponds to a likelihood of 1.0 percent of having received advice/help.
  7. 6 Here the first three categories were collapsed and used as the reference category against which the other categories were contrasted. This was done in order to compare the odds for those who had decreased their consumption against the odds for all those who had not or only intended to decrease their consumption. The OR 1.0 in the collapsed reference group corresponds to a likelihood of 1.8 percent of having received advice/help.