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Table 2 Percent who were a) questioned and b) advised/helped concerning their different health behaviors when visiting health care by the different background variables.

From: Being questioned and receiving advice about alcohol and smoking in health care: Associations with patients' characteristics, health behavior, and reported stage of change

  a) Questioned b) Advised or helped
  Dietary habits Physical exercise Smoking or snuff use Alcohol use Dietary habits Physical exercise Smoking or snuff use Alcohol use
Total         
  27.1 33.4 32.3 23.0 14.3 16.2 8.8 2.7
Gender:         
Men 30.7*** 38.2*** 33.2 28.1*** 18.2*** 18.9** 8.3 4.8***
Women 24.7*** 30.2*** 31.8 19.4*** 11.6*** 14.3** 9.1 1.3***
Age group:         
18-24 20.1* 20.7*** 32.0 18.0 11.7 10.6* 10.6 2.2
25-34 28.8 32.7 37.8*** 27.2*** 10.4** 11.7* 6.8 2.2
35-44 25.2 33.8 29.3 22.7 12.8 16.6 7.0 2.6
45-54 29.7 39.4*** 35.1* 25.2* 15.5 22.2*** 10.3 2.4
55-64 29.9* 37.3** 31.6 22.4 18.8** 19.5** 11.7** 3.8
65-70 23.2 25.6 18.0*** 12.4** 19.6* 12.6 6.0 3.6
Social class:         
blue-collar 26.2 31.3 34.2 23.0 18.6** 21.4*** 15.8*** 5.1***
lower white collar 25.5 32.7 31.5 21.2 12.4 13.4 9.0 2.0
middle white collar 27.0 32.8 32.2 22.3 13.2 16.2 7.8 1.7
higher white collar 29.9 38.7*** 33.0 26.2* 12.7 13.4 4.8*** 1.6
missing values 26.1 29.2 29.3 20.5 14.9 16.2 6.3 3.9
Sick-leave:         
None 24.4** 30.3*** 27.1*** 20.0** 12.6*** 13.0*** 5.8*** 2.2
1-7 days 24.3** 28.7*** 30.1** 20.9** 10.4*** 10.9*** 7.2** 2.0*
8-30 days 28.3 36.5 40.8* 23.9 15.3 20.9 14.2* 2.2
31-90 days 42.9*** 48.3** 49.6*** 35.1** 31.6*** 33.6*** 15.7 4.8
90+ days 45.3*** 61.5*** 45.5** 40.8*** 28.6*** 37.3*** 15.8* 8.4***
missing value 19.1* 20.7*** 23.5** 16.2* 15.8 16.7 10.3 3.8
Physical health:         
very good 21.8*** 26.2*** 29.3* 22.3* 8.4*** 7.8*** 5.2*** 2.0*
good 26.4*** 32.9** 31.1 21.1** 13.5 15.1** 8.3* 2.3
neither good or bad 35.4 44.9 38.2 26.4 23.3* 30.2** 13.7 2.9
bad or very bad 38.4 46.5 42.8 30.2 30.4*** 35.2*** 19.7** 8.5***
missing value 56.2* 64.3* 40.0 46.2 15.4 30.8 16.7 01
Mental health:         
very good 24.5*** 29.4*** 30.9 21.7* 12.3 12.9 6.9 1.6
good 25.1*** 33.3** 31.8 21.2** 13.2 15.3 9.0 2.3
neither good or bad 36.5 38.1 35.3 26.3 19.3 22.1 11.3 5.2
bad or very bad 39.8* 49.7** 40.5 35.2* 25.2 31.2 13.8 7.8
missing values 35.9 48.6 34.4 30.3 22.2 28.6 20.0 9.4
Smoking:         
never 26.5 32.7 26.8*** 22.0 12.2* 13.3** 0.7*** 1.4*
presently 28.6 33.2 47.1*** 24.4 17.5 18.2 32.5*** 5.7*
earlier 26.8 34.4 30.6 23.5 15.2 18.8 4.5 2.8
missing values 37.1 37.1 34.4 20.7 20.6 23.5 13.3 3.4
Alcohol:         
don't drink 27.0 30.8 31.0 23.4 17.8 21.6 7.8* 1.8*
non-hazardous use 26.7 33.8 31.3 21.8 13.7* 15.4* 7.8*** 1.0***
hazardous use 29.0 31.4 38.5 26.5 15.2 16.3 14.0 7.3
dependent on alcohol 35.6 36.2 41.9 45.3*** 22.0 24.1 22.0** 39.1***
missing values 15.4 45.4 27.3 10.0 02 27.3 02 02
Internal missing n 115 150 166 203 118 169 216 255
  1. Bivariate associations (n = 2786).
  2. * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 *** p < 0.001 The significance level is given for each category contrasted against the average of the variable's all categories using Wald chi-square tests in logistic regression models. 1 In estimation of significance levels for this model the category for "missing values" was collapsed with the category "very good". If this category is excluded instead the significance levels remain similar for the other categories. 2 Category was collapsed with non-hazardous use in estimations. If this category is excluded significance levels remain similar.