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Table 1 Distributions of background variables in the sample and among health care visitors

From: Being questioned and receiving advice about alcohol and smoking in health care: Associations with patients' characteristics, health behavior, and reported stage of change

  In the whole sample Among health care visitors
Variables categories % n % n
Gender:     
Men 44.3 1877 40.7*** 1135
Women 55.7 2361 59.3*** 1651
Total 100.0 4238 100.0 2786
Age:     
average age and age span: 43.0 years 18-70 years 43.4 years 18-70 years
Age group:     
18-24 10.1 428 10.2 283
25-39 22.8 965 22.6 630
35-44 22.2 941 20.9** 583
45-54 18.6 787 18.2 506
55-64 19.9 842 21.2** 591
65-70 6.5 275 6.9 193
Social class:     
blue collar 21.6 915 21.9 610
lower white collar 15.2 644 16.2* 451
middle white collar 25.0 1060 25.1 700
higher white collar 24.5 1037 23.4* 653
missing values 13.7 582 13.4 372
Sick-leave the last 12 months     
None 41.6 1764 34.3*** 955
1-7 days 35.2 1490 36.1 1005
8-30 days 11.0 464 14.3*** 399
31-90 days 3.3 138 4.3*** 121
90+ days 5.5 233 7.8*** 216
missing values 3.5 149 3.2 90
Physical health:     
very good 38.1 1613 32.0*** 898
Good 44.0 1867 46.8*** 1303
neither good or bad 11.0 466 12.7*** 353
bad or very bad 5.6 238 7.9*** 220
missing values 1.3 54 0.6*** 17
Mental health:     
very good 46.0 1949 41.8*** 1165
Good 37.1 1570 39.6*** 1103
neither good or bad 9.4 404 10.8*** 301
bad or very bad 5.2 219 6.3*** 175
missing values 2.3 96 1.5*** 42
Smoking:     
never smoked 48.0 2033 46.3** 1289
present smoker 20.3 860 20.8 579
earlier smoker 30.3 1286 31.6* 881
missing values 1.4 59 1.3 37
Alcohol:     
don't drink 7.6 323 7.5 209
non-hazardous use 78.9 3343 78.7 2192
hazardous use 10.5 446 10.9 303
dependent on alcohol 2.4 102 2.4 67
missing values 0.6 24 0.5 15
  1. * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 *** p < 0.001 Significance levels are given for health care visitors in comparison to non-visitors using Wald chi-square tests in logistic regression models.