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Table 2 Cohort studies examining changes in maternal substance use

From: Maternal substance use and integrated treatment programs for women with substance abuse issues and their children: a meta-analysis

Study n Measure d (SE) P Study Quality
Conners & Bradley60 62 Number of days of drug use 0.74 (0.15) 0.001 2/9
  62 % using substances 2.90 (0.80) 0.001  
Elk & Schmitz61 19 Addiction Severity Index Alcohol Composite 0.48 (0.24) 0.049 0/9
  19 Addiction Severity Index Drug Composite 0.83* (0.27) 0.002  
Evenson & Binner62 98 CSTAR Alcohol and Drug Problem Inventory 0.72 (0.11) 0.001 0/9
  98 Cost of Alcohol 0.58 (0.11) 0.001  
  98 Cost of Drugs 0.74 (0.11) 0.001  
  98 CSTAR Substance Use Questionnaire - Did not use substances 2.01 (0.23) 0.001  
  98 CSTAR Substance Use Questionnaire - Main alcohol/drug abstinent 1.60 (0.21) 0.001  
  98 CSTAR Substance Use Questionnaire - Alcohol Abstinent 1.72 (0.26) 0.001  
  98 CSTAR Substance Use Questionnaire - Alcohol Intox Abstinent 2.09 (0.35) 0.001  
  98 CSTAR Substance Use Questionnaire - Cannabis Abstinent 1.88 (0.26) 0.001  
  98 CSTAR Substance Use Questionnaire - Cocaine Abstinent 2.71 (0.79) 0.001  
Ingersoll & Knisely (low psychopathology group)63 33 Addiction Severity Index Alcohol Composite 0.29 (0.18) 0.102 2/9
  33 Addiction Severity Index Drug Composite 0.92* (0.21) 0.000  
Ingersoll & Knisely (high psychopathology group)63 13 Addiction Severity Index Alcohol Composite 0.70 (0.31) 0.023 2/9
  13 Addiction Severity Index Drug Composite 0.28* (0.28) 0.322  
Kerwin (Treatment outcome data for women in substance abuse treatment group, Unpublished data) 7 Addiction Severity Index Alcohol Composite 0.51 (0.32) 0.110 n/a
  7 Addiction Severity Index Drug Composite 0.56* (0.32) 0.087  
McClellan & Gutman64 529 Number of days of alcohol use 0.36 (0.05) 0.001 2
  529 Addiction Severity Index Alcohol Composite (6 months follow up) 0.39 (0.05) 0.001 2
  529 Addiction Severity Index Alcohol Composite (12 months follow up) 0.39 (0.05) 0.001 2
  529 Addiction Severity Index Drug Composite (6 month follow up) 0.63 (0.05) 0.001 2
  529 Addiction Severity Index Drug Composite (12 months follow up) 0.65* (0.05) 0.001 2
  529 Money spent on drugs (6 months follow up) 0.21 (0.04) 0.001 2
  529 Money spent on drugs (12 months follow up) 0.22 (0.44) 0.001 2
Niccols & Sword22 9 % using alcohol (3 months into program) 0.31 (0.48) 0.520  
  7 % using alcohol (6 months into program) 0.31 (0.52) 0.552  
  9 % using cannabis(3 months into program) 0.99 (0.53) 0.061  
  7 % using cannabis (6 months into program 0.99 (0.57) 0.083  
  9 % using cocaine (3 months into program) 1.17 (0.86) 0.175  
  7 % using cocaine (6 months into program 1.04 (0.87) 0.231  
  9 % using tranquilizers (3 months into program) 0.73 (0.90) 0.412  
  7 % using tranquilizers (6 months into program 0.60 (0.90) 0.502  
  9 % using crack (3 months into program) 0.73 (0.90) 0.412  
  7 % using crack (6 months into program 0.60 (0.90) 0.502  
  9 % using barbiturates (3 months into program) 0.73 (0.90) 0.412  
  7 % using barbiturates (6 months into program 0.60 (0.90) 0.502  
  9 % using over the counter drugs (3 months into program) 0.00 (0.53) 1.000  
  7 % using over the counter drugs (6 months into program -0.65 (0.54) 0.239  
  9 % using other drugs (3 months into program) 0.51 (0.63) 0.419  
  7 % using other drugs (6 months into program 0.51 (0.69) 0.461  
Volpicelli & Markman42 21 Number of days of cocaine use 0.753 (0.247) 0.002 1/9
  21 Number of days of cocaine use 0.423 (0.228) 0.063 1/9
Wexler & Cuadrado65 44 % using alcohol 0.37 (0.28) 0.191  
  44 % using drugs 3.06 (0.81) 0.001  
  1. Study included in the overall effect size for number of days of substance use
  2. Study included in the overall effect size for Addiction Severity Index Alcohol Composite
  3. *Study included in the overall effect size for Addiction Severity Index Drug Composite
  4. Comprehensive Substance Abuse Treatment and Rehabilitation
  5. Significance of d based on test of null (z-test).