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Table 1 Factors associated with food insufficiency among injection drug users (n = 1,053)

From: Hunger and associated harms among injection drug users in an urban Canadian setting

Characteristics Yes
65 (%)
N = 681
No
35 (%)
N = 372
Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
Chi-Square†, ‡ p - value
Socio-demographic      
Age      
   Median (IQR) 41.1 (34.5-46.7) 42.8 (35.9-49.4) 0.98 (0.97, 0.99) 7.75 0.005
Gender      
   Male 455 (66.81%) 245 (65.86%) 1.04 (0.80,1.36) 0.10 0.754
   Female 226 (33.19%) 127 (34.12%)    
Aboriginal identity      
   Yes 189 (27.75%) 118 (31.72%) 0.83 (0.63, 1.09) 1.83 0.176
   No 492 (72.25%) 254 (68.28%)    
DTES Residency      
   Yes 496 (72.83%) 210 (56.45%) 2.07 (1.59, 2.70) 29.22 < 0.001
   No 185 (27.17%) 162 (43.55%)    
Unstable housing      
   Yes 504 (74.01%) 207 (55.65%) 2.27 (1.74, 2.96) 36.99 < 0.0001
   No 177 (25.99%) 165 (44.35%)    
Education status      
   High school or greater 345 (50.66%) 205 (55.11) 0.84 (0.65, 1.08) 1.91 0.167
   Other 336 (49.34%) 167 (44.89%)    
Money spent on drugs per day      
   ≥ $50 422 (61.97%) 167 (44.89%) 2.00 (1.55, 2.58) 28.46 < 0.001
   < $50 259 (38.03%) 205 (55.11%)    
Incarceration **      
   Yes 138 (20.26%) 54 (14.52%) 1.50 (1.06, 2.11) 5.33 0.021
   No 543 (79.74%) 318 (85.48%)    
Clinical      
Symptoms of depression *      
   ≥ 16 CES-D 456 (66.96%) 159 (42.74%) 3.73 (2.80, 4.98) 88.19 < 0.001
   < 16 CES-D 136 (19.97%) 177 (47.48%)    
Drug Use      
Daily injection heroin**      
   Yes 240 (35.24%) 88 (23.66%) 1.76 (1.32, 2.34) 15.06 < 0.001
   No 441 (64.76%) 284 (76.34%)    
Daily non-injection crack/rock **      
   Yes 321 (47.14%) 111 (29.84%) 2.10 (1.60, 2.74) 29.75 < 0.001
   No 360 (52.86%) 261 (70.16%)    
Daily injection cocaine**      
   Yes 69 (10.13%) 28 (7.53%) 1.39 (0.88, 2.19) 1.95 0.162
   No 612 (89.87%) 344 (92.47%)    
Any injection or non-injection crystal meth**      
   Yes 28 (4.11%) 9 (2.42%) 1.73 (0.81, 3.71) 2.03 0.154
   No 653 (95.89%) 363 (97.58%)    
Any injection or non-injection drug binge**      
   Yes 352 (51.69%) 146 (39.25%) 1.66 (1.28, 2.14) 14.94 0.001
   No 329 (48.31%) 226 (60.75%)    
Daily alcohol use      
   < = 4 drinks 496 (72.83%) 279 (75.00%) 1.12 (0.84, 1.49) 0.58 0.446
   > 4 185 (27.17%) 93 (25.00%)    
Difficulty accessing drug/alcohol treatment      
   Yes 38 (5.58%) 14 (3.76%) 1.51 (0.81, 2.83) 1.69 0.193
   No 643 (94.42%) 358 (96.24%)    
  1. * Data missing for 125 participants
  2. ** In the past six months
  3. All Chi-Square tests were performed with one degree of freedom (df = 1), with the exception of the
  4. 'symptoms of depression' variable, where df = 2.
  5. ‡ Chi-Squared Test were applied to all categorical variables. A Wald Test was applied to the continuous
  6. 'age' variable, yielding a Wald Chi-Square value.