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Table 3 Group comparisons of memory functions at T1 and T2

From: Memory function in opioid-dependent patients treated with methadone or buprenorphine along with benzodiazepine: longitudinal change in comparison to healthy individuals

Domain or Test Methadone
(n= 13)
Buprenorphine or Buprenorphine/Naloxone
(n= 15)
Normal Comparison
(n= 15)
Group effect Statistical comparisons between normal comparison and patient groups using years of education and VIQ adjusted scores, whenever possibleb Effect sizes, whenever possible
  M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)    
Working memory, raw scores       
WMS-III Letter-Number Sequencing at T1 9.6 (2.3) 8.4 (2.3) 11.7 (3.2) F (2, 38) = 4.57
p = 0.017*
t(27) = 1..84, p = 0.074, M vs. NC = ns d = 0.68
      t(29) = 3.02, p = 0.008, NC > BN ** d = 1.01
WMS-III Letter-Number Sequencing at T2 8.6 (2.1) 9.2 (2.3) 11.6 (2.9) F (2, 38) = 4.19,
p = 0.023*
t(27) = 2.76, p = 0.018, NC > M* d = 1.05
      t (29) = 2.39, p = 0.022, NC > BN * d = 0.83
PASAT at T1 31.4 (9.2) 31.8 (10.7)a 46.7 (9.4) F (2, 38) = 9.84
p = 0.001***
t(27) = 4.19, p < 0.001, NC > M *** d = 1.43
PASAT at T2 31.6 (8.6) 34.1 (8.4) 46.0 (8.7)a F (2, 38) = 7.15
p = 0.002**
t(29) = 3.70, p < 0.001, NC > BN*** d = 1.54
      t(27) = 3.47, p = 0.002, NC > M** d = 1.42
      t(29) = 3.32, p = 0.002, NC > BN** d = 1.24
Immediate verbal memory, raw scores       
Memory for Persons Data, first trial at T1 10.7 (2.6) 10.8 (2.5) 13.0 (1.5) χ2(2, N = 43) = 8.91
p = 0.012*
U = 43.0, p = 0.011, NC > M* -
      U = 51.5, p = 0.020, NC > BN*  
Memory for Persons Data, sum of last two trials (T1) 14.9 (0.2) 14.6 (0.7) 14.9 (0.2) χ2 (2, N = 43) = 2.75
p = 0.25
- -
WMS-III Logical Memory, immediate free recall (T1) 12.9 (2.4) 15.1 (4.3) 16.3 (3.6) F (2, 38) = 1.90,
p = 0.16
- -
WMS-III Logical Memory, immediate free recall (T2) 14.2 (3.1) 14.1 (3.3) 16.3 (3.1) F (2, 38) = 1.25,
p = 0.30
- -
Memory consolidation, percentages       
WMS-III Logical Memory, free recall after short-delay (30 min) (T1) 91.4 (15.3) 91.7 (14.0) 87.5 (13.1) F (2, 38) = 0.64,
p = 0.94
- -
WMS-III Logical Memory, free recall after short (30 min) delay (T2) 87.1 (14.4) 93 .8 (17.1) 98.3 (14.1) F (2, 38) = 1.28,
p = 0.29
- -
Memory for Persons Data, free recall after short delay (30 min) (T1) 92.8 (7.9) 98.2 (6.1) 98.7 (3.1) χ2(2, N = 43) = 4.48
p = 0.11
- -
Memory for Persons Data, free recall after long delay
(4 – 8 mo) (T2)
22.1 (18.1) 29.8 (23.2) 32.4 (22.1) χ2(2, N = 43) = 1.54
p = 0.46
- -
Memory for Persons Data, recognition after long delay (4 – 8 mo) (T2) 79.6 (10.6) 82.1 (12.9) 81.3 (10.7) F (2, 38) = 0.60
p = 0.55
- -
Memory complaints, raw score       
The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (T1) 26.6 (5.7) 26.0 (5.4) 20.4 (2.5) χ2(2, N = 43) = 11.25 U = 39.0,
p = 0.012, NC < M*
-
     p = 0.004** U = 40.0, p = 0.008, NC < BN ** -
The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (T2) 25.6 (3.2) 24.5 (6.7) 20.4 (1.5) χ2 (2, N = 43) = 14.04 U = 16.5, p < 0.001, NC < M***  
     p = 0.001*** U = 49.0, p = 0.015, NC < BN *  
  1. Note: PASAT = Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task;
  2. WMS-III = Wechsler Memory Scale-third version.
  3. BN = buprenorphine or buprenorphine/naloxone, M = methadone, NC = Normal comparison.
  4. a = Missing value of one participant was substituted by carry-over value from the first test.
  5. *** = statistically significant at level p < 0.001, ** = statistically significant at level p < 0.01, * = statistically significant at level p < 0.05, ns = non-significant.