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Table 2 Group demographics

From: Memory function in opioid-dependent patients treated with methadone or buprenorphine along with benzodiazepine: longitudinal change in comparison to healthy individuals

  Methadone
(n= 13)
Buprenorphine or Buprenorphine/Naloxone
(n= 15)
Normal Comparison
(n= 15)
Group comparison
p-valuesa
Age, mean of years at T1 (SD) 29.2 (6.8) 27.7 (6.8) 28.7 (9.6) M vs. BN, p = 0.99
     M vs. NC, p = 0.99
     BN vs. NC, p = 0.99
Sex: females/males 7/6 4/11 8/7 M vs. BN, p = 0.14
     M vs. NC, p = 0.98
     BN vs. NC, p = 0.14
Verbal intelligence, Meanb (SD) 100.6 (11.4) 99.4 (9.3) 104.1 (9.6) M vs. BN, p = 0.99
     M vs. NC, p = 0.74
     BN vs. NC, p = 0.63
Education, mean of years (SD) 10.1 (1.2) 10.5 (2.0) 12.6 (1.3) M vs. BN, p = 0.54
     M < NC***, p < 0.001
     BN < NC**, p = 0.006
Opioid of abuse used within last month at T1     
   Buprenorphine 85% 100% - M vs. BN, p = 0.48c
   Heroin 15% 0%   
Other substances of abuse used within last month at T1 and T2     
   Alcohol (heavy use)d 15%/15% 13%/7% 7%/7% M vs. BN vs. NC (T1/T2),
p = 0.99c/0.99c
   Amphetamine 8%/8% 13%/7% - M vs. BN vs. NC (T1/T2)
p = 0.99c/0.99c
   Benzodiazepine, any Use 100%/100% 100%/100% 0%/0% M & BN > NC*** (T1/T2),
p < 0.001c/p < 0.001c
   Benzodiazepine, extra doses 38%/38% 42%/33% - M vs. BN (T1/T2),
p = 0.62/p = 0.78c
   Cannabis 31%/31% 40%/27% - M vs. BN (T1/T2),
p = 0.83c/0.84c
   Nicotine (daily use) 100%/100% 100%/100% 33%/33% M & BN > NC*** (T1/T2),
p < 0.001c/p < 0.001c
Duration of OST in the day of testing at T1, Mean of days (SD) 21 (14) 19 (12) - M vs. BN, p = 0.69
Duration of OST on the day of testing at T2, Mean of days (SD) 213 (25) 224 (17) - M vs. BN, p = 0.15
Participants with other dependence or abuse diagnosis at T1     
   Alcohol 0% 0% 0% M vs. BN vs. NC, p = 0.99c
   Amphetamine 0% 0% - M vs. BN, p = 0.99c
   Benzodiazepine 100% 100% - M vs. BN, p = 0.99c
   Cannabis 15% 20% - M vs. BN, p = 0.99
   Nicotine 100% 100% 33% M vs. BN, p = 0.99c
     M vs. NC, p = 0.13c
     BN vs. NC, p = 0.12c
Participants with any DSM-IV axis I diagnosis at T1 15% 20% 0% M vs. BN, p = 0.99c
     M vs. NC, p = 0.21c
     BN vs. NC, p = 0.22c
Participants with any personality disorder diagnosis (DSM-IV axis II) at T1 54% 59% 0% M vs. BN, p = 0.99c
     M > NC**, p = 0.003c
     BN > NC**, p = 0.002c
Duration of opioid abuse at T1, Mean of years (SD) 11.4 (5.5) 9.0 (2.9) - M vs. BN, p = 0.26
Duration of any substance abuse at T1, Mean of years (SD) 15.0 (5.1) 13.4 (5.2) - M vs. BN, p = 0.37
  1. a Based on pairwise group comparisons with analysis of variance (ANOVA) or chi-squared test.
  2. b Estimation based on the WAIS-R Vocabulary score.
  3. c Fisher's Exact Test (2-tailed).
  4. d Alcohol use was considered heavy if it was at least a mean of 16 portions weekly for females and 24 portions weekly for males. One portion was defined as 12 g of alcohol.
  5. BN = buprenorphine or buprenorphine/naloxone, M = methadone, NC = Normal comparison.
  6. *** = statistically significant at level p < 0.001. ** = statistically significant at level p < 0.01. * = statistically significant at level p < 0.05.