Skip to main content

Table 6 Share of each component included in the direct cost and indirect cost

From: The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review

Country/study Year Total direct cost Total indirect cost
  Health care cost (%) Crime and laws enforcement (%) Property damage/loss (%) Other direct cost
(%)
Reduced productivi-ty
(%)
Premature Mortality
(%)
Other indirect cost
(%)
Australia 1988 [6] 6.9 3.2 24.5 65.4 14.5 85.5 N.A.
Australia 1992 [6] 7.2 3.0 23.7 66.1 13.9 86.1 N.A.
Australia 1998-9 [7] 6.0 29.3 33.8 30.9 3.2 84.6 12.2
Canada 1992 [18] 38.4 40.1 15.3 6.2 33.8 66.2 N.A.
Canada 2002 [15] 44.5 41.4 12.3 1.8 0.6 13.0 86.4
Ontario 1992 [20] 35.6 42.1 16.0 6.3 37.8 62.2 N.A.
England and Wales 2001/2 [4] 22.7 24.2 33.3a 19.8 37.8 33.3 28.9
Finland 1990 [26] 28.0 16.6 13.5 41.9 4.2 95.8 N.A.
France 1997 [9] 31.8 0.6 40.0b 27.6 6.7 92.4 0.9
Germany 2002 [12] 83.7 N.A. N.A. 16.3 17 68.8 14.2
Japan 1987 [14] 90.4 0.02 0.3 9.3 79.7 17.3 3.0
The Netherlands 2001[13] 13.5 8.1 54.0c 24.4 19.7 N.A. N.A.
New Zealand 1991 [8] 11.4-20.6 70.9-79.5 N.A. 17.7 56.2 3.3 80.3
Portugal 1995 [24] 30.4 17.4 52.2 0 76.7 23.3 N.A.
Scotland 2001/2 [19] 20.9 59.6 N.A. 19.5 19.2 67.3 13.5
Sweden 2002 [11] 22-30 26-28 N.A. 44-49 33.1 - 44.6 29.4-46.3 20.6 - 29.1
South Korea 2000 [5] 21.7 N.A. 5.8 72.5 58.4 41.6 N.A.
Thailand 2006 [25] 84.3 3.7 12.0 N.A. 30.4 70 N.A.
US 1985 [17] 43.1d 26.9 19.2 10.8 50.2 44.0 5.8
US 1990 [16] 45.6d 25.2 19.6 9.6 48.5 44.5 7
US 1992 [23] 40.6d 15.4 37.1 6.9 64.7 29.3 6
US 1998 [10] 46.5d 12.5 34.3 6.6 64.4 28.1 7.5
  1. NA: Not applicable, a: this figure also included cost of victim of crime support, b: this figure included all road accident expenditures of insurance companies, which covered more than cost of property damage, c: this figure also included treatment cost related to accidents, material cost, and cost of productivity losses due to accidents, d: not included healthcare cost for fetal alcohol syndrome