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Table 2 Methodological characteristics of the 22 studies reviewed

From: The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review

Study Consideration of positive effect Approach Discount rate
Australia 1988 [6] Net cost Demographic approach N.A.
Australia 1992 [6] Net cost Demographic approach N.A.
Australia 1998-9 [7] Net cost Demographic approach N.A.
Canada 1992 [18] Gross cost Human capital approach 6%
Canada 2002 [15] Gross cost Human capital approach 5%
Ontario 1992 [20] Gross cost Human capital approach 6%
England and Wales 2001/2 [4] Gross cost Human capital approach N.I
Finland 1990 [26] N.I N.I N.I
France 1997 [9] Gross cost Human capital approach 6%
Germany 2002 [12] Gross cost & Net cost Human capital approach 5%
Japan 1987 [14] Gross cost Human capital approach 6%
The Netherlands 2001 [13] Gross cost N.A. N.A.
New Zealand 1991 [8] Gross cost Human capital approach 5 &10%
Portugal 1995 [24] Gross cost Human capital approach 5%
Scotland 2001/2 [19] Gross cost Human capital approach 6%
Sweden 2002 [11] Gross cost & Net cost Human capital approach 3%
South Korea 2000 [5] Gross cost Human capital approach 5%
Thailand 2006 [25] Gross cost Human capital approach 3%
US 1985 [17] Gross cost Human capital approach 6%
US 1990 [16] Gross cost Human capital approach 6%
US 1992 [23] Gross cost Human capital approach 6%
US 1998 [10] Gross cost Human capital approach 6%
  1. NI: Not indicated, NA: Not applicable