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Table 1 Vulnerability factors and potential individual and systemic remedies

From: Psychological drivers in doping: The life-cycle model of performance enhancement

  Potential remedies
Vulnerability Individual (therapy style, one on one intervention) Systemic (system level adjustment)
Compulsiveness Perspective taking, balanced life goals Athletes as a person, not result-generating device
Single mindedness Self-esteem work: winner vs. worthwhile, self-respecting person Career transition (i.e. life after sport)
Risk aversion Communicate the risk: health, legal, financial, social, psychological Support independent research re toxicity of PE methods to established standard
Expediency Value system, collaborative work Replace prohibition with mandatory informed consent and supervision Incentives for fair play