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Table 1 Demographic data and substance use history of methadone maintained, protracted abstinence and non-dependent comparison groups, using Chi-squared testing (χ2) for categorical variables, and ANOVA (F) for continuous variables.

From: Character pathology and neuropsychological test performance in remitted opiate dependence

  Methadone Maintained
(n = 29)
Protracted Abstinence
(n = 27)
Comparison
(n = 28)
Statistics Significance
Gender      
   Male 23 (79.3%) 20 (74%) 21(72.4%) χ2 = 0.49 p = 0.78
   Female 6 (20.7%) 7 (26%) 8 (27.6%) df = 2  
Ethnicity      
   African American 6 (20.7%) 11 (40.7%) 10 (34.7%)   
   European American 11 (37.9%) 7 (25.9%) 12 (41.4%)   
   Hispanic 12 (41.4%) 7 (25.9%) 3 (10.3%) χ2 = 14.95 df = 10 p = 0.13
   Asian 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (3.4%)   
   Native Am./Pacific Islands 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (3.4%)   
   Other 0 (0%) 2 (7.5%) 2 (6.8%)   
Age Years: Mean ± S.D. 37.93 ± 7.5 42.59 ± 5.4 34.00 ± 8.0 F(2,84) = 10.21 p < 0.001
Education Years: Mean ± S.D. 13.03 ± 4.8 11.81 ± 2.2 15.51 ± 1.8 F(2,84) = 9.32 p < 0.001
Substance Use History      
Mean ± S.D.      
   Age of Onset: Years 19.36 ± 5.5 23.32 ± 8.9 N/A F = 3.88; df = 1 p = 0.054
   Years of heroin use 14.72 ± 8.9 14.68 ± 9.0 N/A F = 0.00 df = 1 p = 0.98
   Daily dollar amount: $ 122.96 ± 105.09 124.57 ± 115.90 N/A F = 0.003 df = 1 p = 0.959
Substance Treatment History      
Mean ± S.D.      
   Years of MM 6.48 ± 7.03 6.85 ± 6.80 N/A F = 0.038 df = 1 p = 0.847
   Highest methadone dose (mg/day) 88.21 ± 25.54 83.68 ± 30.22 N/A F = 0.307 df = 1 p = 0.582
   Years of opiate abstinence N/A 0.89 ± 0.37 N/A N/A  
  1. N/A = not applicable
  2. Years of MM = years of methadone maintenance