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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of participants and their parents by participants' smoking status (N = 1,417)*

From: The moderating role of parental smoking on their children's attitudes toward smoking among a predominantly minority sample: a cross-sectional analysis

  Participants' smoking status  
  Never ( n = 830; 58.6%) Ever ( n = 587; 41.4%) DF p value
Participant Characteristic     
Gender     
   Male 297 (52.2) 272 (47.8)   
   Female 533 (62.9) 315 (37.1) 1 < 0.01
Age (years)     
   Mean (SD) 15.60 (0.86) 15.74 (0.94) 1415 < 0.01
Ethnicity     
   Black 375 (68.6) 172 (31.4) 1 < 0.01
   Hispanic 376 (52.0) 347 (48.0) 1 < 0.01
   Other 39 (62.9) 23 (37.1) 1 0.48
   White 40 (47.1) 45 (52.9) 1 0.03
Temptations to smoke     
   Mean (SD) 1.27 (0.65) 1.73 (0.90) 1415 < 0.01
Parent Characteristic     
Highest level of education of either parent
   Less than high school 136 (48.1) 147 (51.9) 1 < 0.01
   Completed high school 188 (58.9) 131 (41.9) 1 0.88
   Some college 157 (60.2) 104 (39.8) 1 0.57
   Completed college 198 (63.3) 115 (36.7) 1 0.06
Marital status     
   Married 463 (62.5) 278 (37.5)   
   Not married 367 (54.8) 309 (45.2) 1 < 0.01
Smoking status     
   Neither parent smokes 496 (63.6) 296 (36.4)   
   Only one parent smokes 260 (56.8) 198 (43.2)   
   Both parents smoke 74 (44.3) 93 (55.7) 2 < 0.01
  1. *Data in table are numbers of participants or parents (percentages) unless otherwise specified; percentages are row percentages.
  2. SD = Standard Deviation; DF = Degrees of Freedom.
  3. P-values for age and temptations to smoke are based on Student's t-test, all other p-values are based on chi-square tests of association.