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Table 1 Measurement level descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate normality (N = 174)

From: Attitudes and doping: a structural equation analysis of the relationship between athletes' attitudes, sport orientation and doping behaviour

Variable min max mean sd skew c.r. (skew) kurtosis c.r. (kurtosis)
Doping belief .00 4.00 1.057 1.248 .822 4.425 -.331 -.892
Competitiveness 13.00 65.00 57.890 13.265 -2.362 -12.718 4.662 12.552
Win orientation 6.00 30.00 25.620 6.072 -1.795 -9.665 2.556 6.882
Goal orinetation 6.00 30.00 26.780 5.592 -2.382 -12.829 4.962 13.360
Doping attitude 19.00 79.00 42.138 12.190 .505 2.718 -.223 -.600
Past use of doping .00 3.00 .910 .949 1.173 6.315 1.203 3.238
Current doping use .00 3.00 .580 .629 1.164 6.270 2.700 7.271
Multivariate Mardia's coeff.        26.185 15.385
  1. Observations farthest from the centroid (Mahalanobis distance) (Group number 1)