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Table 4 Correlates of past year nonmedical ADHD medication use

From: The nonmedical use of prescription ADHD medications: results from a national Internet panel

  Sample Unadjusteda Adjusteda
  %b OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Age      
   18–25 4.34 3.52 1.76–7.08 1.89 0.87–3.64
   26–49 1.27 1.00    
Sex      
   Female 1.66 0.69 0.35–1.36 1.03 0.48–2.22
   Male 2.37 1.00   1.00  
Race/ethnicity      
   White 2.35 1.00    
   Nonwhite 1.36 0.57 0.30–1.09 0.59 0.29–1.19
Education      
   Less than high school graduate 1.21 0.65 0.30–1.42 0.81 0.33–1.95
   High school graduate 1.85 1.00   1.00  
   Some college 3.26 1.79 0.78–4.09 1.72 0.72–4.13
   College graduate 1.41 0.76 0.37–1.55 0.75 0.33–1.71
Student status (age 18–25) c      
   College student 4.57 1.10 0.67–1.81   
   Nonstudent 4.18 1.00    
Insurance      
   Public 2.12 1.00   1.00  
   Private 1.69 0.80 0.42–1.51 0.79 0.40–1.58
ADHD status      
   No dx w/meds lifetime 1.53 1.00   1.00  
   Meds in lifetime, but not past year. 8.94 6.31 1.84–21.44 6.04 1.72–21.15
   Meds in past year 25.57 22.08 9.53–51.18 9.95 2.55–38.85
Past-month binge alcohol use d      
   No 0.90 1.00   1.00  
   Yes 4.46 5.13 2.48–10.63 4.38 1.70–27.42
Past-year marijuana use      
   No 1.09 1.00   1.00  
   Yes 7.41 7.29 3.51–15.16 16.78 6.66–42.27
Past-year methamphetamine use      
   No 1.70 1.00   1.00  
   Yes 45.50 48.27 20.62–112.91 2.00 0.76–5.29
Past-year cocaine use      
   No 1.33 1.00   1.00  
   Yes 26.23 26.37 11.23–61.92 2.73 1.13–6.60
  1. ADHD = Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; CI = Confidence interval; OR = Odds ratio (1.00 = reference group).
  2. a Unadjusted models are bivariate associations. The adjusted model was a single model that included all the characteristics listed in this table as covariates.
  3. b Weighted to the U.S. population of noninstitutionalized civilian adults, aged 18 to49.
  4. c Student status was not estimated in the adjusted model.
  5. d Defined as having five or more drinks in a single occasion at least once in the past 30 days.