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Table 1 Characteristics of drug-related deaths reported for Liverpool by drug abuse/dependent status (1st January 2004 to 30th June 2005)

From: When is a drug-related death not a drug-related death? Implications for current drug-related death policies in the UK and Europe

Variable Drug abuser/dependent1 Not a drug abuser/dependent Unknown drug abuser/dependent Total P for the comparison between 'drug abuser/dependent' and 'not a drug user/dependent'
n 38 21 11 70  
Male n (%) 24 (63.2) 13 (61.9) 8 (72.7) 45 (64.3) 0.924
Resident in Liverpool n (%) 27 (71.1) 18 (85.7) 10 (90.9) 55 (78.6) 0.338
Drugs known to have been detected in toxicological investigations n (%)2      
Heroin/morphine 22 (57.9) 3 (14.3) 2 (18.2) 27 (38.6) 0.001
Methadone 12 (31.6) 1 (4.8) 0 13 (18.6) 0.022
Alcohol 15 (39.5) 11 (52.4) 5 (45.5) 31 (44.3) 0.339
Cocaine 16 (42.1) 0 3 (27.3) 19 (27.1) <0.001
Known history of alcohol abuse n (%) 10 (26.3) 7 (33.3) 5 (45.5) 22 (31.4) 0.569
Known drug treatment contact in 2003/04, 2004/05 or 2005/06 n (%) 12 (31.6) 0 0 12 (17.1) 0.005
Known drug related criminal justice contact in 2003/04, 2004/05 or 2005/06 n (%)3 7 (18.4) 0 0 7 (10.0) 0.043
Death from drug(s) toxicity n (%)4 19 (50.0) 19 (90.5) 7 (63.6) 45 (64.3) 0.002
Age at death, years median (inter quartile range) 38.23 (32.39 – 44.07) 53.59 (44.13 – 65.81) 41.15 (29.99 – 52.21) 42.36 (33.28 – 51.35) <0.001
  1. All statistical comparisons used χ2 or Fisher's exact test except for 'age at death' where a Mann-Whitney U was used.
  2. 1Classification of deaths into 'drug abuser/dependent' categories is made by the national programme on Substance Abuse Deaths (np-SAD). 2The substance did not necessarily contribute to the death. 3Contacts with Arrest Referral Scheme in 2003/04 and Drug Interventions Programme in 2004/05 and 2005/06. 4Includes toxicity from prescribed drugs.