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Table 1 Background Characteristics of Study Sample at Baseline

From: African-American crack abusers and drug treatment initiation: barriers and effects of a pretreatment intervention

Characteristic All Participants (N = 443)
Sociodemographic  
% Male 73.1
Mean age (S.D.) 39.9 (7.8)
% Married or living with partner 16.3
% High school graduate 50.1
% Employed full time 32.0
% Currently homeless 38.1
% Have any type of health insurance 21.3
% Any type of criminal justice involvement 15.1
Drug Use, Treatment History  
Mean number days smoked crack past 30 days (S.D.) 15.3 (10.4)
% Used alcohol daily past 30 days 32.8
Mean number days drank 5+ drinks past 30 days (S.D.) 11.6 (11.5)
% Used crack daily past 30 days 19.4
Mean number years crack use (S.D.) 13.1 (6.8)
% Ever in drug treatment 59.6
Mean number treatment episodes (S.D.) 1.6 (2.5)
Motivation, Readiness to Change  
Mean Problem Recognition scale score (S.D.) 8.7 (2.8)
Mean Desire for Help scale score (S.D.) 6.2 (1.3)
Mean Treatment Resistance Index scale score (S.D.) 2.1 (1.4)
% in Preparation Stage of Change – alcohol use 71.6
% in Preparation Stage of Change – crack use 84.2
% in Preparation Stage of Change – treatment entry 64.3
Barriers to Treatment  
% Transportation 69.7
% Childcare 8.6
% Scheduling around work, school, or family responsibilities 42.1
% Paying for treatment 75.1
% Religious, ethnic, or cultural issues 10.4
Psychological Symptoms  
Mean depression scale score (S.D.) 2.3 (2.0)
Mean anxiety scale score (S.D.) 1.1 (1.2)