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Table 3 Health Correlates of Alcohol Consumption

From: Alcohol use and health outcomes in the oldest old

Daily Alcohol Consumption Total Sample N = 7,434 Doesn't Drink N = 4,146 Less than once a day N = 2,515 1–2 drinks per day N = 620 3 or more drinks per day N = 153 Test Statistic (df) p-value
Self Rated Health Mean 3.1 (1.2) 3.3 (1.2) 2.8 (1.1) 2.6 (1.1) 2.6 (1.2) χ2(3) = 383.9 0.0001
Mean # Chronic Illnesses 1.6 (1.2) 1.7 (1.2) 1.4 (1.1) 1.3 (1.1) 1.4 (1.2) χ2 (3) = 135.4 0.0001
% Stroke 10.6 12.6 8.4 7.4 5.9 χ2 (3) = 41.2 0.0001
% Heart Disease 31.6 34.2 29.1 25.8 22.9 χ2 (3)= 35.3 0.0001
% Diabetes 13.3 16.6 10.1 6.1 7.2 χ2 (3) = 95.4 0.0001
BMI 25.4(4.5) 25.4(4.7) 25.5(4.3) 24.8(3.7) 25.5(3.8) χ2 (3) = 10.6 0.01
Smoking Status       χ2 (6) = 452.7 0.0001
1 = Current 10.0 8.2 9.8 17.1 30.1   
2 = Former 42.5 35.5 48.3 61.3 60.1   
3 = Never 47.5 56.3 41.9 21.6 9.8   
% Falls 7.7 8.3 7.0 7.4 5.9 χ2 (3) = 4.8 0.19.
% Hip Fracture 5.0 5.8 4.2 3.7 2.0 χ2 (3) = 14.5 0.002
% any ADL 30.5 37.5 23.3 15.3 18.3 χ2 (3) = 236.3 0.0001
% any IADL 31.0 38.5 22.4 19.5 15.0 χ2 (3) = 253.1 0.0001
Mean CES-D* 1.7(1.9) 1.9(2.1) 1.5(1.9) 1.2(1.7) 1.3(1.7) χ2 (3) = 118.5 0.0001
Mean TICS-R* 19.5(5.9) 18.2(6.1) 20.8 (5.3) 21.6(4.6) 21.3(5.4) χ2 (3) = 366.0 0.0001
  1. Note: Kruskal Wallis tests were used for continuous variables (BMI, TICS-R) as these did not have normal distributions. Means and standard deviations are given for descriptive purposes only. BMI = Body Mass Index, ADL = Activities of Daily Living, IADL = Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, TICS-R = Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status- Revised. *For analyses using the CES-D, N = 6,649. For those using the TICS-R, N = 6,351.