Skip to main content

Table 5 Ethnicity as predictor of daily use of betel, areca and smokeless tobacco products in a Pakistani squatter settlement

From: Socio-demographic correlates of betel, areca and smokeless tobacco use as a high risk behavior for head and neck cancers in a squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan

  Prevalence (%) Univariate OR [95% CI] Mean Freq
Paan
Sindhi 6.0% 0.25 [0.07–0.91] 8.7
Punjabi 7.2% 0.31 [0.12–0.82] 6.5
Pathan 1.8% 0.07 [0.01–0.36] 11.0
Mohajir 20.2% 1.00 8.0
Chaalia
Sindhi 25.4% NS 4.8
Punjabi 17.4% NS 6.7
Pathan 21.2% NS 8.9
Mohajir 30.0% 1.00 5.9
Gutka
Sindhi 6.0% NS 5.0
Punjabi 6.6% 0.33 [0.12–0.92] 10.7
Pathan 4.4% 0.22 [0.06–0.73] 5.4
Mohajir 17.5% 1.00 7.4
Niswar
Sindhi 6.0% 1.00 24.0
Punjabi 12.6% NS 11.6
Pathan 24.8% 5.18 [1.73–15.53] 16.7
Mohajir 15.0% NS 14.2
Tumbaku
Sindhi 3.0% 0.12 [0.02–0.61] 4.5
Punjabi 7.8% 0.34 [0.13–0.88] 10.5
Pathan 4.4% 0.18 [0.06–0.61] 11.8
Mohajir 20.0% 1.00 8.1
Overall
Sindhi 34.3% NS 10.5
Punjabi 34.7% NS 13.4
Pathan 46.0% NS 15.2
Mohajir 50.0% 1.00 16.8
  1. NS = Difference not statistically significant